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題名:鄭錦全〈漢語方言親疏關係的計量研究〉 統計方法之商榷
作者:陳韻竹
會議名稱:長榮大學博雅教育學部論文發表
發表頁數:pp1-17
發表地點:台南 長榮大學
發表年份:2020
發表月份:04
摘要:中央研究院語言學研究所院士鄭錦全先生認為:「科學研究的目標之一是用可驗證的測量來表示研究對象。」 故自1973年以來,鄭先生便一直致力於用數量來表達漢語方言的親疏關係,首先就方言點的調值,按「陰調」和「陽調」的不同調高計算方言差異,接續又計算了漢語方言在詞彙上的相互關係,並建議把詞彙間之親疏程度做為觀察方言關係的一個參考面,最後又把這種方法用於音韻成分,測量漢語方言之親疏遠近。〈漢語方言親疏關係的計量研究〉一文,是鄭先生從事方言差異的數量研究工作的總結及成果介紹。本文首先簡要介紹鄭先生論文所依據之數據檔案及相關統計方法;其次對於鄭先生這篇論文所舉範例:北京與瀋陽詞彙相關係數phi=0.8888,與筆者驗算0.4不同,提出疑義,以為應當是誤植所致,所幸僅是範例,無關乎整體統計數值。最後則由統計之視角對其所運用統計方法之適切性提出不同的見解,最核心關鍵在於,鄭先生採皮爾遜積差相關係數(Pearson’s Product Moment correlation)來計算17個方言點在詞彙、聲母、韻母及聲調上的親疏關係,然而依筆者所考察,此統計方法運用違反皮爾遜積差相關係數:「樣本裡的每一筆數據都必須獨立於其他數據」之先決條件,故最後所呈現之統計數字,並不能真正說明這17個方言點之親疏關係,需要再斟酌。至於鄭先生能夠突破以往對方言「性質」的羅列陳述的瓶頸,嘗試以客觀「數量」的呈現來表示漢語方言間的親疏遠近,在研究方法上另闢蹊徑,是可謂樹立典範,為方言研究指引了新方向,其學術上的卓越成就與貢獻是無所質疑。 Mr. Chen Ching-Chuan, researcher at the Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica once said, “One of the purposes of scientific research is to describe the subject of study using quantifiable measurements.” Thus, since 1973, Mr. Chen has dedicated much effort into giving numerical value to the disparities or closeness between different dialects of the Mandarin language. First, difference between regional dialects were calculated through observing the distinction in pitch when speaking with different inflections and tones. Mr. Chen then calculated the degree of interactions in vocabulary between dialects and advocated for the ‘closeness’ of dialects to be taken as reference when conducting research. Lastly, the same method is implemented to rhythmic and poetic literature. 〈A Quantitative Description of the Relationships Among Chinese Dialects〉is the culmination and conclusion of Mr. Chen’s line of research. This article attempts to, from a purely statistical perspective, point out the errors and mistakes found in the values given by Mr. Chen’s calculations and further discuss the adequacy of some of the methods used by Mr. Chen to obtain said values. Pioneering a drastically different approach that takes advantages of objectivity of numbers to quantify the relationship between Chinese dialects, Mr. Chen has changed the landscape within relevant fields of study, and is undoubtedly an outstanding researcher with significant contributions.
關鍵字:方言,統計方法,鄭錦全
英文關鍵字:dialects, statistical methods, Chen Chin-Chuang
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