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題名:C. E. Lin; P. C. Shao Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, Taiwan ; H. T. Bui; Y. Y. Lin
作者:C. E. Lin; P. C. Shao Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, Taiwan ; H. T. Bui; Y. Y. Lin
會議名稱:2021 The Integrated Communications Navigation and Surveillance (ICNS) Conference
發表頁數:pp.1-8
發表地點:Dulles, VA, USA
發表年份:2021
發表月份:04
摘要:The hierarchical Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) is proposed and implemented in Taiwan for Regional (under 400 feet) and National (above 400 feet) operations, as shown in Figure 1. The RUTM is authorized to local government; while the NUTM is controlled by Civil Aeronautical Administration (CAA) [1, 2]. The proposed ADS-B Like on-board unit (OBU) broadcasts UAV 90 Byte flight data to UTM cloud and displays on UTM under full surveillance [3]. Since UAV’s are small and light, additional hardware for collision avoidance may not be suitable for most UAV’s considering the additional weight and power. When there are multiple UAV’s flying in a small airspace, detect and avoid (DAA) mechanism should be activated in UTM. The F-Escort (Flying Escort) is a proposed software for DAA in UTM. The F-Escort is designed referring to traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) in manned aircraft system to detect the approaching UAV’s in regional UTM. UAVs approach is detected by heading arrow extrapolation to assess possible conflict. A DAA separation bubble is defined by Traffic Advisory (TA) and Resolution Advisory (RA) among multiple targets with estimated time to conflict (TTC). On the occasion of airspace intrusion, UAV’s heading extrapolation is checked to possible conflicts by TA=48 sec and RA=25 sec with TTC marks. TA is set at 6 data periods; while RA is set 3 data periods. An audio signal will be generated to alert the UTM controllers to pay attention to the conflict. Once the approach proceeding from conflict to collision alert at RA, the UTM controller will use controller to pilot communication (CPC) to notify the less priority UAV pilot to make avoidance. In the system implementation, CPC mechanism is constructed using cell phones in personal call or by Zello broadcast [2, 3] to flying groups. From the preliminary trials, Zello audio broadcast can complete a warning within 8 seconds and pilot reaction within next 8 seconds. Priority rules is set by forward, lateral and by-passing. The DAA mechanism does not apply vertical separation and crossover for UAV’s in the small airspace. The proposed F-Escort has been implemented into Tainan RUTM system with software manipulation and performed active avoidance for UAV’s in real time operation. In RUTM, the surveillance data period is fixed at 8 seconds. The signal delay in ADS-B like system to UTM cloud is 0.5~1 second and Zello CPC is measured about 1~2 seconds. The communication time delay is enough to perform RA for avoidance. The ADS-B Like surveillance has counted with 89% reliability to trace UAV flights based on TTC concept. In the verification, ADS-B Like surveillance has been paid attention on reliability to work with the F-Escort software. From the RUTM operation in Taiwan [2], the proposed F-Escort for DAA is preliminarily tested to assure UTM surveillance into better UAV flight safety. The UTM project in Taiwan is continuing to improve operational efficiency and quality.
關鍵字:
英文關鍵字:Detect and Avoid (DAA), Flying Escort (F-Escort), Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), UAS Traffic Management (UTM), Traffic Advisory (TA), Resolution Advisory (RA), Time to Conflict (TTC).
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Mail:pcshao@mail.cjcu.edu.tw