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題名: 聰明機靈?聽話順從?「乖巧」之發生與詞義演變探究 —當代辭典「乖巧」釋義之商榷
發表頁數:pp. 01-28
摘要:聰明機靈?聽話順從?「乖巧」之發生與詞義演變探究 —當代辭典「乖巧」釋義之商榷 陳韻竹 台南 長榮大學 通識教育中心教授 摘要 「乖巧」在當代辭典中之釋義,或「懂事聽話」 、或「聰明伶俐」 ,或「懂事聽話而又聰明機伶」 ,然而「懂事聽話」並不必然「聰明伶俐」,「聰明伶俐」亦不必然「懂事聽話」,「乖巧」是否兼具「懂事聽話」又「聰明機伶」二義,頗可質疑。教育部線上辭典,包括《國語辭典簡編本》、《重編國語辭典修訂本》及《異體字字典》等三種皆存列「乖巧」一詞,是當今官方之標準釋義,但三部辭典之釋議,繁簡出入不同,唯皆做「褒」義解。 然而在存世史料《三國演義》第六十八回〈甘寧百騎劫魏營,左慈擲盃戲曹操〉中有一則「乖巧」用例,關於曹丕、曹植爭立世子的一段情節描寫:「於是操疑植乖巧,誠心不及丕也。」 梳理推敲上下文義:顯然此段文字之「乖巧」並無「懂事聽話」之義涵,即使做「聰明機靈」理解,也是背反於「誠心」,是狡詐、虛偽不實,有虧「誠心」之意,是操疑懷疑曹植聰明巧滑,不如曹丕誠心實意,當作「貶」義詮釋。 由「貶」而「褒」,顯然詞義有所變化,竟是何時發生變化?對於古代典籍之閱讀理解至關重要;又是何以發生變化?是否牽涉「乖」字,由「悖逆」而「順從」之曲折關鍵?亦有釐清之必要,本論文嘗試針對此困惑,著重探究「乖巧」一詞發生之歷史語言詮釋,分析其詞義演變的因由,冀盼能對當代辭典之釋義提供可資參考之學術理論依據。 關鍵字:詞義、辭典、乖巧 Obedient?Keen and Clever?The Reserch of 乖巧. lexical development and changes── Discussion on 乖巧. Interpretation of Modern Dictionaries Melody Chen Professor, General Education Center Chang Jung Christian University Abstract In modern dictionaries, the phrase 乖巧 is defined as obedient or keen and clever. However, obedience does not imply cleverness, nor does being clever suggest obedient behavior. Whether the phrase 乖巧 really has the two meanings is a topic to be debated. The official online dictionary published by the Ministry of Education, as well as multiple other credible dictionaries have all included 乖巧 within their contents, but only listed definitions with positive connotations. In the historical text ‘Romance of the Three Kingdoms’, in its 68th chapter, there was a passage that described how the two sons of Cao Cao fought to become heir to their father’s empire. In the passage, the younger son, Cao Zhi was depicted using the phrase 乖巧. From context, it becomes rather evident that the phrase was used in a derogatory fashion, accentuating the sly and devious nature of Cao Zhi that contrasted with his brother’s earnestness. When did the meaning of 乖巧 change from negative to positive? How did it happen, and is it related to the switch in meaning that also occurred in the word 乖? These questions hold much significance in the study and interpretation of historical text. I will attempt to answer them in this thesis and shed light upon the evolution and progression of 乖巧. Key Words: Semantic, Dictionary,乖巧
英文關鍵字:Semantic, Dictionary,乖巧