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作者:Hye Kyung Park
期刊名稱:Oxford Bibliographies
摘要:Three Athaliahs appear in the biblical texts: the son of Jeroham (1 Chronicles 8:26), a descendent of Elam (Ezra 8:7) and the queen of Judah (2 Kings 8:18, 26, 11:1–20; 2 Chronicles 21:6, 22:2–3, 22:10–23:21, 24:7). This article focuses mainly on the third character. Athaliah was the only queen of the Southern Kingdom of Judah between approximately 841and 835 BCE. She ordered the execution of the whole Davidic royal family after seeing her sons killed by Jehu. The studies of Athaliah have explored two aspects: her double paternity as a daughter of the Omride dynasty, and her leadership as a queen of the Davidic dynasty. There are inconsistent narratives regarding the paternity of Athaliah. The fact that Jehoram married the daughter of Ahab in 2 Kings 8:18 implies that Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab, was his wife. However, the regnal formula of Ahaziah, the son of Jehoram, in 2 Kings 8:26 (along with 2 Chronicles 22:2) informs us that his mother was the Athaliah who was the daughter of Omri. Was Athaliah the daughter of Ahab or Omri? Rabbinical tradition preferred to explain Athaliah as the daughter of Ahab since she was raised at the court of Ahab, although he was in fact her older brother. Modern scholars insist she was the daughter of Omri. The question of Athaliah’s parents’ identity in the literal reading of the biblical texts involves the complicated marriage relationship between the Omride household and Davidic family because her son Ahaziah has been referred to as the son-in-law of Ahab (2 Kings 8:37). Academic interpretations of Athaliah’s leadership also vary, with uncertainty on questions such as whether she served as a regent to her grandson or reigned as queen of the kingdom in her own right. Studies on her leadership role as queen include interpretations such as feminist biblical studies since the end of the 20th century. Critical scholars doubt she ruled as queen, and consider that she is more likely to have acted as a regent. Traditional commentaries ascribe her extermination of the house of Judah to her unbridled ambition to become a queen, which implies she wasn’t one. In addition, her lineage as the daughter of Jezebel legitimates Jehoiada’s revolt against her. Early-21st-century feminist reinterpretation of her story suggests her actions were an understandable response to Jehu’s killing of her son. There are two reports of her death, in 2 Kings 11: 16 and 20.
英文關鍵字:Athaliah, Old Testament, 2 Kings 8, 11, 2 Chronicles 21, 22, 24